የኤደን ስጦታ Nile The Gift of Eden

November 27, 2013 in Nile Water

የኤደን ስጦታ

አንዱዓለም በቀለ(ሰዊስ 2013)

Andualem19@yahoo.com

ግሪኮች ናይሎስ..ብለዉ ቢሰይሙህ፣

አኒል አኒል…ብሎ አረብ ቢያሞካሽህ፣

ኢታሩ “ታለቅ ወንዝ“…ሃፒ ሃፒ አሉህ፣

ደስታ ቢያገኙብህ………………..

ጥንት ግብጻዊያን…ህይወት ቢዘሩብህ፤

በሰላሳ ስሞች…ቢጠሩ ቢያጅቡህ፣

ዓባይ የኛን ዓባይ…እኛ መች አጣንህ፤

ከላይ ከከፍታ…ቁልቁል ተወርዉረህ፣

ከአለት ተጋጭተህ…ጢስ ሆነህ ተነስተህ፣

በፏፏቴህ ዜማ…ልዩ ድምጽ አዉጥተህ፣

ንገራቸዉ እስቲ…ከረቂቅ ሚስጥርህ።

የኤደን ትሩፋት…የፊሾን ተከታይ፣

የነ ኤፍራጥስ…………………

የጤግሮስ ወንድም…የተፈጥሮ ሲሳይ፣

እነዴት ሆኖ ባንተ…ዛሬ እንለያይ?፣

ዓለም ስትፈጠር…አብረህ ተፈጥረሃል፣

ሐዋርያት እንኳን…ከትበዉልሃል፣

በቅዱስ መጽሐፍ…ስምህ ይጠቀሳል፣

የኤደን ስጦታ…ግዮን ተብለሀል፣

እንኳን እኛ ሰዎች…ፈጣሪም ያቅሃል፤

እንዴት ሆኖ ታዲያ…………….

ዛሬ ስለ ክብርህ…ሰዎች ይነግሩናል!፣

ሁለት አሥርት ዓመት…መች ተፈልገሀል!፣

ተዉ ባክህን ግዮን…ተዉ ባክህን ዓባይ፣

እነሱ ላንተ ሟች…ሌላዉ አንተን ገዳይ?!

እነሱ አልሚዎች…ሌላዉ አነተን በዳይ?!

ተወን እነጂ ግዮን…እባክህን ዓባይ፣

በቂ ተዘርቶልን…ጎሪጥ እሚያስተያይ፣

እየቦጠቦጠን የደም…የዘር ተባይ፣

ደሞ ሁሉም ቀርቶ…በንተ ልንለያይ?!

አቤት ያንተ ያለህ!…ባዋይ በመጀንህ!፣

ምሁራን ልሂቃን…እንዳልመከሩብህ፣

የቀድሞ አባቶች…እንዳልደከሙልህ፣

ጭራሽ እንዳልታየህ…ድሮ እንደሌለህ፣

ከሃያ ዓመት በላይ…ስትፈለግ ኖረህ፣

………………ዛሬ ላይ ተገኝተህ!፣

የልማቶች ሁሉ…ምሣሌ ተደርገህ፣

ጥፋት መሸፈኛ…ማዘናጊያ ሆነህ፣

እድሜ ማራዘሚያ…መዳኒት ተደርገህ፣

ሁሉም ተነሳና…ዓባይ ዓባይ አለህ፤

የማዉራት የመፃፍ…የሃሳብ ነፃነት፣

በህግ የመዳኘት…የዲሞክራሲ መብት፣

የድህነት ማብቂያ…ያኢኮኖሚ እድገት፣

አጀብ ምኑ ቅጡ…መቻሉን ከሰጠህ፣

የችግሮች ሁሉ…መፍቻ ዘዴ ሆነህ፣

ጦስ ጥንቡሳስ ሁሉ…ባንተ ተጥሎብህ፣

ከተፍ አልክልና…ዓባይ ካባ ሆነህ!።

 

መች ከፋ ነበረ…ስላንተ መጣሩ፣

ስላንተ ማዜሙ…ባንተ መፎከሩ፣

ግራ ቢሆን እንጂ…ቢጣረስ ነገሩ፣

ምሬት ቢበዛ እንጂ…ሰዉ በገዛ አገሩ፤

እነዳንተ እንደ ወንዙ…እነደ ፈሳሽ ጅረት፣

ሰዉ ሃገሩን ጠልቶ…ሲጣደፍ ለስደት፣

በየ በረሃዉ ላይ…እንደ በግ ሲበለት፣

ባህር ሰምጦ ሲቀር…ህይወት እንደዘበት፣

ሴቶች ሲሸቀጡ…ለዐረብ በረከት፣

ተዋልዶ ተፋቅሮ…ከተቀመጠበት፣

ማፈናቀል ይቅር…ይከበር የሰዉ መብት፣

ከድንጋይ ከብረት…ከአፈር ካአለት፣

ሥርዓት ይገደብ…ይሄ ይቅደም ማለት፣

እንዴት ያስፈርጃል…እንደ ልማት ጠላት?!

ፍጡራን ሲራቡ…ንፁሀን ሲሞቱ፣

ዜጎች ያለ ጥፋት…ወህኒ ሲከተቱ፣

መፃፍ ወንጀል ሲሆን…ሰዉ በገዛ ጣቱ፣

አትናገር ሲባል…በገዛ አንደበቱ፣

ቢመሳቀል እንጂ…የሁዋለና ፊቱ፣

መቅደም የሚገባዉ…የሰዉ ነፃነቱ፣

ፍጹም ተዘንግቶ…ተደፍቶ ባናቱ፣

እንዲህ ቢሆን እንጂ…ነገሮች ቢምታቱ፣

ደሞ የምን ገንዘብ…አረ ምን አባቱ!፣

ይታወቅ የለ እንዴ…በዓለም እዉነቱ፣

የጥቁሮች ኩራት…ኢትዮጵያዊነቱ፣

ጭራሽ ለሃገሩ…ለአንዲት እናቱ!?

ለሌላዉም ለጋሽ…ሩህ ሩህ አንጀቱ፣

ለነፃነቱ ሟች…ይሄ ክንደ ብረቱ፣

ሀገር ያቆየልን…በደሙ ባጥንቱ፣

አዬ ምነዉ ጎበዝ!…አረ ባርባራቱ፣

ለቀባሪዉ ማርዳት!?…ልክ እንደ ተረቱ!፣

ተወን ባክህ ዓባይ…እስቲ በፈጠረህ፣

መሸሹ ቀርቶብህ…አንተም ተሰብስበህ፣

በሰዉ በረሃ ለይ…መባከን ቀርቶብህ፣

ሲሳይ ለወገንህ…መድን ለልጆችህ፣

እንደቃሉ ግዮን…ያምለክ ፀበል ሆነህ፣

ለሚገዘትብህ…እንደዚ በስምህ፣

እዉነቱን አጥርተህ…ዉሸቱን አጋልጠህ፣

ዲያቢሎሱን ሁሉ…ፈዉሰዉ አጥምቀህ፣

ህሊና ሥራለት…ኢትዮጵያዊ አርገህ።

ሚስኪኑንም….እርዳዉ፣

እነደዛ በዙሪያህ…ለተኮለኮለዉ፣

አንተ አባቱ እያለህ…ጠኔ ለጠለፈዉ፣

ከፍሰትህ ጨልፈህ…አንጀቱን አርጥበዉ፤

 

እባክህን ዓባይ…እበክህን ስማን፣

ከፀበልህ እርጨን…በጢስህ እጠነን፣

ሀሉን በሚያረገዉ…በኤደን ፈጣሪህ፣

አቅፎ ባሳደገህ…በጣናዉ አባትህ፣

ባክህ ተለመነን…ባክህ እሺ በለን፣

በጢስህ እጠነን…በዳመናህ ጋርደን፣

ከጎረቤት ቡዳ…ከነገር ጠብቀን፣

ለም አፈሯን ትተህ…ጠላቷን አጥፋልን፣

ቆሌህን አስቆጣዉ…አለሗችሁ በለን፣

ከዉስጥም ከዉጭም…ቆልፎ ከያዘን፣

ዲያቢሎስ መጋኛ…እባክህ ገላግለን፣

…………..ፈዉስ ፀበል ሁነን፣

ኤሎሄ ኤሎሄ…ዓባይ ፍቅር ስጠን፤

ኤሎሄ ኤሎሄ…ዓባይ ሰላም ሁነን፡ ፡

“ ግንባታ እሚጀምረዉ ከታች ከመሠረት ነዉ!እናም ምንም ክፍያ የሌለዉን

በተፈጥሮ የተሰጠ የሰዉ ልጆች ነፃነትን፣ሰብአዊ መበትን እና የዜግነት ክብርን መሠረት

ያላደረገ የይስሙላ ግንባታ የእንቧይ ካብ ነዉ።”

አንዱዓለም በቀለ

Andualem19@yahoo.com(Switzerland)

Ethiopian Regime Fails to See Reason over the River Nile

November 23, 2013 in Ethiopian Regime Fails to Reason over Nile

 

 

"Ethiopia should also apologise for its attempts to impose a fait accompli on downstream countries" - Egyptian Scholar

“Ethiopia should also apologise for its attempts to impose a fait accompli on downstream countries” – Egyptian Scholar

By Nader Noureddine,

Ethiopia has been having trouble finding finance for its Renaissance Dam. The technologically hazardous and politically incendiary project has failed to whet the appetites of investors though this did not seem to bother the Ethiopian delegation to recent talks.

Instead of admitting that the whole idea is unfeasible, the Ethiopians harangued the Egyptian delegation, claiming that Egypt was wasteful with water, had no right to its full water quota, and should not be channeling water to Sinai or Toshka. The Egyptian delegation sat sheepishly through the meeting.

The Ethiopians claimed they have no intention of building the dam “on the dead bodies of Egyptians”, a meaningless assertion. The fact is they cannot find finance for the dam because — politics aside — the project doesn’t make economic or ecological sense.

The meeting began with the Ethiopians demanding an apology for the ridiculous — and unfortunately televised — meeting between ousted president Morsi and party chiefs. The Egyptian delegation duly complied though if anyone should be offering apologies it is the Ethiopians, and for a number of reasons.

The Ethiopians pressed on, accusing the Egyptians of racism and arguing that Egypt is stealing their water. One even made the fantastical claim that Ethiopia was getting only three per cent of its water resources.

Table - 1

Table – 1

According to an official report from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) released in December 2012, Ethiopia’s rivers are fed with 122 billion cubic metres of water annually. Of this amount, about 71 billion cubic metres flows downstream via the Blue Nile, Atbarah and Sobat.

Ethiopians left with 51 billion cubic metres — about as much as Egypt receives. I have no idea where the three per cent notion came from.

Aside from river water, rainfall allows Ethiopia to raise 100 million cattle on natural grassland, making it the largest exporter of organic milk in Africa. Because it has the advantage of farming with clean rainwater, not the polluted river water Egypt uses, Ethiopia is high on the listof organic food exporters to Europe.

If anyone is thrifty for water it is Egypt, a country that uses agricultural drainage water, sometimes more than once, and where the population lives on five per cent of the land. Egypt has lost two million feddans to urban sprawl in the past 30 years. No other nation in Africa, or the world, lives on such a small area of its land, something the Egyptian delegation could have told the Ethiopians rather than sitting around and taking the blame.

Table - 2

Table – 2

How can you compare a country that has 14 rivers with one that has a single river? Ethiopia has already built 13 hydroelectric dams without a word of protest from Egypt’s side.

To add insult to injury the Ethiopians told our delegation that Egypt was giving water to the rich and depriving the poor. The reference is perhaps to the couple of professional golf courses we have.

The truth is that Egypt uses 80 per cent of its river water for agriculture, an activity that is concentrated in the impoverished countryside where nearly three out of four people are classified as poor. The remaining water is split almost equally between domestic and municipal uses on one hand and industry on the other. So where do the rich fit into this image?

The Ethiopians are angry because Egypt is channelling Nile water to Sinai and Toshka, areas that they claim have no right to get water as they are far from the Nile basin.

The Egyptian delegation didn’t answer that, but I will.

Sinai was connected to the Nile centuries back, through the Pelusiac branch. In fact the area of Baluza in Sinai is named after this branch. There is a valley, called Tina, in Sinai in which 60 per cent of the soil is made up of Nile silt.

The canal to Sinai isn’t operating yet. When it is, it will draw only two billion m3 per year from the Nile water, and an additional 2.3 billion m2 from agricultural drainage. We are not wasting water but preserving it at a rate rarely seen in Africa. There is not one upstream country in the Nile Valley that reuses water, Ethiopia included.

Toshka represents a fraction of the arable land we have lost over the years. As I have mentioned, since 1952 Egypt has lost nearly two million feddans of agricultural land to urban growth. It would only be fair to reclaim an equal amount of land — or more if it is to feed its growing population — elsewhere.

The Toshka project extends over 540,000 feddans. To compensate for the land it has lost, Egypt plans to reclaim one million feddans on the north coast. There is nothing rapacious about this. Egypt’s population has grown from 20 million in 1952 to over 90 million at present while its arable land has diminished over the same period.

Our delegation should have pointed out the above and asked a few questions of its own, such as:

 Why has Ethiopia increased the capacity of the Renaissance Dam from 14 billion m3 before the January 2011 Revolution to 74 billion m3, an increase that doesn’t lead to higher production of electricity or more land reclamation?

– Why did the height of the dam increase to 145 metres from 90 metres?

– What will Ethiopia do with the immense amount of silt that the Blue Nile carries? The water of the Blue Nile is so heavy with silt that it has been rated as one of the least suitable rivers worldwide for damming. The river carries about 245 million tonnes of silt every year, enough to fill it within a few years. The only way to deal with the problem of silting is to build three more dams, the total capacity of which is 200 billion m3. Knowing that the capacity of the Blue Nile is no more than 48 billion m3 per year, the whole thing is bizarre. Why would any country try to store 200 billion m3 of water from a river that brings only one quarter of this quantity every year?

– Why is Ethiopia ignoring the report by the 10-member committee (two representatives from Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia, one expert from the UK, France, Germany, and South Africa) about the need for further studies on the ecological and other repercussions of the dam? Experts have pointed out that the dam is likely to lead to the desertification of Egypt, which means that Mediterranean water will inundate the Delta. If the dam is built Egypt’s water supply will drop drastically preventing power generation in the High Dam. Lake Nasser will become irrelevant since Egypt will have no extra water to store.

– What is the reason to build this massive dam with its fantastically large lake?Hydroelectric dams don’t need that much water. Smaller dams, with a lake ranging between eight billion to 14 billion m3 in volume, are more efficient. So what is the point of building a massive dam with an electric generating efficiency as low as 33 per cent, when the efficiency of smaller dams average 66 per cent.

– What if the dam collapsed, a scenario of which a German expert warned? There is a 90 per cent chance that the dam will collapse within the first 10 years of its construction. Is this something Ethiopia is capable of dealing with? Is it offering Egypt — and Sudan — any guarantees against damages?

Ethiopia is acting as if Egypt is threatening its security whereas the opposite is true. Egypt has a responsibility to defend its people. It cannot allow them to starve, go thirsty, or be inundated.

I recall the words of the late Anwar Al-Sadat, who said that if need be we will go to Ethiopia and die there, not die of thirst where we stand.

One way out of the dilemma is for Egypt to allow Ethiopia to go back to the old specification of the dam — with a height of 90 metres and a lake of 14 billion m3. But this must be conditional on the Ethiopians not building future dams on the Blue Nile without prior consent from Egypt and Sudan.

Ethiopia should also apologise for its attempts to impose a fait accompli on downstream countries, something which runs in the face of international law.

The negotiations are continuing, but if this attitude on the Ethiopians’ side persists it will be a matter of weeks before they collapse. In this case Egypt will have to consider taking other measures to protect itself.

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The writer is professor of water resources and soil at Cairo University.

Egypt farmers fear water supply threat from Ethiopia dam

November 12, 2013 in A Tale of Two Dams, Chile the Example to fight desertification, Damming, Dams and desertification, Delay of Nile Treaty, Disagreement between Egypt and Ethiopia over dam, Egypt warns, Egyptian Farmers Fear of Ethiopian dams

The Blue Nile in Guba, Ethiopia, during its diversion ceremony.- AFP

“We don’t want this dam,” says Saeed Al Simari, standing on his modest land in Egypt’s fertile Nile Delta region.

“We want to plant our land, we need water. It’s hard enough with the water we have, imagine when we don’t have anymore,” said Simari.

“We are very worried about our crops,” he told AFP.

Ethiopia is pressing ahead with construction of a $4.2 billion (3.2 billion euro) Grand Renaissance Dam, set to become Africa’s biggest hydroelectric dam when completed.

The announcement of the project caused a national outcry in Egypt, with politicians, media and farmers warning that the dam could pose a national security threat.

Water experts in Egypt say there is already a water deficit in the country due to the exploding population.

“The average person uses 620 to 640 cubic metres (21,000 to 22,600 cubic feet) per year. With the water poverty level defined at 1,000 cubic metres, we are already below the water poverty level,” says Alaa Al Zawahry, a dam expert and member of a government commission tasked with studying the downstream impact of Ethiopia’s dam.

Egypt, which fears the project may diminish its water supply, says its “historic rights” to the Nile are guaranteed by two treaties from 1929 and 1959 that allow it 87 percent of the Nile’s flow and give it veto power over upstream projects.

But a new deal was signed in 2010 by other Nile Basin countries, including Ethiopia, allowing them to work on river projects without Cairo’s prior agreement.

In May, Ethiopia began diverting the Blue Nile a short distance from its natural course for the construction of the dam, but has assured its neighbours downstream that water levels would not be affected.

But Egyptians fear a doomsday scenario in which water shortages would lead to crop failures and electricity cuts.

A study by international experts on the dam’s impact on the river has been submitted to Egypt and Sudan, which also relies on Nile resources and supports Ethiopia’s hydro-electric project.

Egypt has dismissed the study’s findings, which minimise the dam’s impact, and has called for further assessments.

The first phase of the Grand Renaissance Dam is expected to be complete in 2016 and will generate 700 megawatts of electricity. When the entire project is complete it will have a capacity of 6,000 megawatts.

The filling of the dam is expected to take around five years and this according to experts will be the most taxing phase for Egypt.

Egypt’s Aswan Dam — which controls annual floods and provides water for irrigation — has a strategic reserve of 70 billion cubic metres, which will drop by 15 billion each year of the filling phase of the Renaissance Dam, says Zawahry.

After five years, “there will be an electricity shortage and the strategic reserve will be used up,” he told AFP.

Ethiopia, for whom the dam promises a much-needed source of energy, has pledged to maintain dialogue with Egypt to resolve any problem.

Zawahry says constant coordination between both countries is crucial.

“There will always be a conflict between Ethiopia wanting to produce more electricity and Egypt receiving the water it needs,” he said.

But it is difficult to accurately predict the exact impact of the Renaissance Dam.

“It’s all a question of probability,” said Zawahry, with many variables playing a part.

“On the Nile, from Ethiopia to Aswan, there are several dams but they are small and their effects are small. But if there will now be a 74 billion cubic metre dam, the management of both dams has to be very well coordinated,” he said.

The water ministers of Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia are to hold talks soon to discuss the progress of the dam, Egyptian officials have said.

“We have heard many encouraging statements from the Ethiopian side saying that the dam will not affect Egypt. The mood is positive,” said Khaled Wassef, spokesman for the ministry of water resources and irrigation in Egypt.

“We need the full information on issues like how long exactly will it take to fill the dam, the way it will be managed,” Wassef told AFP.

But on the fields, the farmers are less optimistic.

They say water shortages will force them to use underground wells rather than Nile water, which is richer in nutrients thanks to the silt deposits.